One of the most interesting things about nanotechnology is that the properties of many materials change when the size scale of their dimensions approaches nanometers. Materials scientists work to understand those property changes and utilize them in the processing and manufacture of materials at the nanoscale. The field of materials science covers the discovery, characterization, properties, and end-use of nanoscale materials.
Carbon Nano Tubes:
This is a carbon nanotube, just a bit over 1 nanometer in width (100 nanometers is 1000 times smaller than the width of a human hair). Nanotubes are up to 100 times stronger than steel at only 1/6 the weight. They have a thermal conductivity near that of diamonds, and an electrical conductivity that can exceed that of copper. Inside this nanotube are "buckyballs", spherical carbon molecules. This combination has the potential to be used to create nanomechanical structures.
Carbon Nano Tubes